This common feast of these three teachers was instituted a little before the year 1100, during the reign of the Emperor Alexis I Comnenus, because of a dispute and strife that arose among the notable and virtuous men of that time. Some of them preferred Basil, while others preferred Gregory, and yet others preferred John Chrysostom, quarreling among themselves over which of the three was the greatest. Furthermore, each party, in order to distinguish itself from the others, assumed the name of its preferred Saint; hence, they called themselves Basilians, Gregorians, or Johannites. Desiring to bring an end to the contention, the three Saints appeared together to the saintly John Mavropous, a monk who had been ordained Bishop of Euchaita, a city of Asia Minor, they revealed to him that the glory they have at the throne of God is equal, and told him to compose a common service for the three of them, which he did with great skill and beauty. Saint John of Euchaita (celebrated Oct. 5) is also the composer of the Canon to the Guardian Angel, the Protector of a Man's Life. In his old age, he retired from his episcopal see and again took up the monastic life in a monastery in Constantinople. He reposed during the reign of the aforementioned Emperor Alexis Comnenus (1081-1118).
Synaxis of the Three Holy Hierarchs: Saints Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom
30 january: Synaxis of the Three Holy Hierarchs: Saints Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom; Hieromartyr Hippolytus, priest, of Antioch, martyred in the period of the heretical Novatianists; Hieromartyr Hippolytus of Rome, Bishop of Rome, and those with him (269): Martyrs Censorinus, Sabinus, Ares, the virgin Chryse (Chryse of Rome), Felix, Maximus, Herculianus, Venerius, Styracius, Mennas, Commodus, Hermes, Maurus, Eusebius, Rusticus, Monagrius, Amandinus, Olympius, Cyprus, Theodore the Tribune, Maximus the Presbyter, Archelaus the deacon, and Cyriacus the bishop – all beheaded at Ostia under Roman Emperor Claudius Gothicus and a vicarius named Ulpius Romulus; Venerable Zeno the Hermit, of Antioch (414), disciple of St. Basil the Great; Martyr Theophilus the New, in Cyprus (784); Venerable Kyriakos, ascetic of the Great Lavra of St. Sabbas the Sanctified (7th-8th centuries); Saint Peter I of Bulgaria, King of Bulgaria (969); Saint Martina of Rome, a martyr in Rome under Alexander Severus (228); Saint Savina of Milan (Sabina), who ministered to martyrs in prison and buried their bodies during the persecution of Diocletian (311); Saint Armentarius of Antibes, first Bishop of Antibes in Provence in France (c. 451); Martyrs Felician, Philippian and Companions, a group of 126 martyrs in North Africa; Saint Tudy (Tudclyd, Tybie), a virgin in Wales; Llandydie church in Dyfed is named after her (5th century); Saint Adelgonda, foundress of Maubeuge Abbey (680); Saint Balthildes, Queen of France and nun of Chelles (680); Saint Armentarius of Pavia, Bishop of Pavia (c. 711); Saint Amnichad (Amnuchad), a monk and then a hermit at Fulda monastery (1043); Venerable Zeno the Faster, of the Kiev Caves Monastery (14th century); New Martyr Hadji-Theodore of Mytilene (Mt. Athos) (1784); New Martyr Demetrius of Sliven (1841); Saint Theophil, fool-for-Christ, of Svyatogorsk Monastery (1868); Blessed Pelagia of Diveyevo Monastery, fool-for-Christ (1884); New Hieromartyr Vladimir Kristenovich, Priest (1933); New Martyr Stephen Nalivayko (1945). Other Commemorations: Commemoration of the deliverance of the island of Zakynthos from the plague by Saint George the Great-Martyr (1688); Finding of the Wonderworking Icon of Panagia Evangelistria of Tinos (1823); Day of Letters / Greek Letters Day (Greek Orthodox Church).